Eye Solutions News

Managing allergy eye

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on January 24, 2020 4 Comments

Irritated, red, eyes can be caused by a number of different maladies but if itchiness is present then this symptom points strongly to allergy eyes.

Eye allergies are an over sensitivity to a harmless foreign substance, an allergen, which may be seasonal (pollens and grasses) or year round (dust mites, animal dander, air pollutants, moulds). Allergies affect around 20% of the population with 1/5th of those having allergies involving the eyes.

For an allergic reaction to occur in the eyes, there must be some form of matter, often microscopic, which comes into contact with the eyes and so a conservative and often adequate first step is to use frequent lubricating drops to clear away the material that’s causing the reaction. In some cases a reduced tear film layer may be the primary factor and reestablishing a well lubricated eye surface may be all that’s required to manage the allergic reaction.

If a causative allergen can be identified then avoidance is recommended - staying indoors on high pollen count days, wearing glasses/sunglasses when cutting grass, keeping pets out of the bedroom can be enough to manage the allergy in some circumstances.

Decongestant drops are marketed at irritated eyes but they treat the symptoms without really treating the cause and when they are used regularly can result in rebound redness and changes to pupil activity and to vision. These drops are not trivial, especially in existing cardiovascular or hypertension, and can even be fatal when used inappropriately. Chronic use of these drops can cause long term dry eyes which are difficult to manage and we rarely recommend these drops in our practice.

The hypersensitivity reaction of an allergy results in inflammation and just like you would ice a sprained ankle to reduce the inflammation, an allergic eye can be quickly and easily quelled by applying cold packs to the eyes or using lubricating drops that have been refrigerated. On our online store, there are cold packs available.

More severe cases, which are often accompanied by stringy, sticky but clear discharge from excessive mucus production may need antihistamine eye drops or stronger anti inflammatory drops.

Very severe allergies have the potential to cause irreversible effects on vision and effective management is vital to prevent vision loss.

Ocular allergies often require ongoing management but optometrists are able to prescribe a variety of medicines to compliment the non-pharmacologic treatment strategies to mean that relief is available for itchy, allergic eyes.

References

Patel Darshak S, Arunakirinathan Meena, Stuart Alastair, Angunawela Romesh. Allergic eye disease BMJ 2017; 359 :j4706 https://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j4706.full

Chigbu, D. I. (2009). The management of allergic eye diseases in primary eye care. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 32(6), 260–272.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2018/09/05/south-carolina-police-allege-murder-it-was-the-wife-in-the-foyer-with-the-eye-drops/?utm_term=.e012a954f6f9

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Helpful or hype? A balanced look at blue light filters

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on January 24, 2020 4 Comments

In recent years the conversation surrounding the effects of blue light has been steadily growing. What began as investigations into the sleep cycle of photosynthetic marine plankton in the 1950s has rapidly progressed to today’s detailed research of the human response to different wavelengths and the impact it has on the many facets of our complicated physiology.1 The findings of this research seems to suggest that the wavelength of visible light that is most harmful to humans is at around 435 nm – blue-violet light on the visible spectrum.2 As the global population is increasingly exposed to blue-violet light due to everyday technology like smartphones, laptops and flourescent lighting, the discussion of blue light hazards has found its way into the spotlight. Several tech companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung offer blue light filters for almost all of their digital products and blue light filter coatings for spectacle lenses are becoming more and more common. But how does blue light filtering stack up against the hype?

We’ve probably all heard of the dangers of UV light before and the multitude of ocular pathologies that can arise from exposure to the sun’s rays. Luckily, medium-wave ultraviolet B and short-wave ultraviolet C light is effectively filtered by the ozone layer and the lens of the eye.3 It’s the long-wave ultraviolet A light that can pass through both these media along with visible light to penetrate the macular pigment. Blue-violet light is similar to UVA light in that they are both comparably high energy wavelengths. This means that they can have powerful effects on the retina, and such effects are not always beneficial. Both have been linked to macular degeneration, although the relationship between MD and blue light exposure is more tenuous.4

You may be asking yourself why we don’t simply block all blue light like we do UV light if there’s accumulating evidence that blue light is detrimental. While UVA light can and should be effectively filtered with quality sunglasses, it is not always effective or practical to do the same for blue light. Unlike UVA, we need wavelengths of blue light to be able to see in scotopic and mesopic conditions – that is, low-light environments.3 Blue light is also necessary for the regulation of circadian rhythm. Retinal ganglion cells containing melanopsin pigment are stimulated by blue light to indirectly suppress melatonin release into the blood, which has the effect of reducing sleepiness.2 Its absence at night would normally, under the natural circumstances that humans have evolved under, trigger melatonin release and allow for the onset of sleep.

However, now that more and more of us are using digital devices before bed (as many as 70% of Australian adolescents)5 this sleep cycle is being interrupted. It follows then that blue light filtering is mostly necessary after dark when we would like to be able to sleep. As previously mentioned, there are settings on almost all digital devices to lessen blue light emission at certain times of the day. There are also options available in the form of spectacle lens add-ons that help to block blue light. The first of these is an anti-reflection coating, which gives the light reflected off the glasses a bluish hue, but most AR coatings generally only block about 10% of blue light that is emitted from digital devices.3 The lenses themselves can also be tinted an amber colour which can block much more blue light depending on the density, but these must be manufactured in accordance with legal requirements for night driving.3 Finally, different lens materials can block up to 100% of blue-violet wavelengths, but these often have a heavy yellowish-amber hue.

Recent research has shown that amber-tinted lenses have significant effects on those who use digital devices before bed, including insomniacs. Wearing these glasses for just three hours a night for two weeks increased melatonin levels in participants by 58% in one study, increasing sleep duration by 24 minutes.6 The insomniac study showed similar results, with participants experiencing about 30 extra minutes of sleep when tinted lenses were worn for 2 hours before bed.7 The common thread in each of these studies is that participants reported faster sleep onset and a deeper, more rejuvenating slumber.

At this point there is not much evidence to link blue light with serious ocular pathology like macular degeneration. Although we may not know all there is to know about the cause and effect relationship between blue light and disease, we know enough about the impact of blue light on circadian rhythm and its subsequent detriment to the body’s function to caution against excess exposure to blue light emissions, particularly late at night and in high levels.

References

  1. Holzman, David C. “What’s In A Color? The Unique Human Health Effects Of Blue Light”. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol 118, no. 1, 2010, pp. A22-A27. Environmental Health Perspectives, doi:10.1289/ehp.118-a22

  2. Marshall, John. “The Blue Light Paradox: Problem Or Panacea”. Mivision, 2017, http://www.mivision.com.au/the-blue-light-paradox-problem-or-panacea/

  3. Peaper, Nicola. “Controlling Light: Transmission, Reflection And Absorption By Spectacle Lenses”. Mivision, 2018, http://www.mivision.com.au/controlling-light-transmission-reflection-and-absorption-by-spectacle-lenses/

  4. Tosini, Gianluca et al. “Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology.” Molecular vision 22 (2016): 61-72.

  5. Gamble, Amanda L. et al. “Adolescent Sleep Patterns And Night-Time Technology Use: Results Of The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey”. Plos ONE, vol 9, no. 11, 2014, p. e111700. Public Library Of Science (Plos), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111700

  6. Ostrin, Lisa A. et al. “Attenuation Of Short Wavelengths Alters Sleep And The Iprgc Pupil Response”. Ophthalmic And Physiological Optics, vol 37, no. 4, 2017, pp. 440-450. Wiley, doi:10.1111/opo.12385

  7. “Selective Blue Block Helps Insomniacs”. Mivision, 2018, http://www.mivision.com.au/selective-blue-block-helps-insomniacs/

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Headaches, eye-aches and vision changes

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on May 23, 2018 4 Comments

A range of different forms of headaches occur with either pain around the eyes or with changes to vision and these headaches can be tricky to diagnose because both eye and vision symptoms may be caused by either an eye disease, a head disease or a systemic disease. Also, the prognosis is spread across harmless, vision threatening or life threatening.

Generally, headaches associated with the eyes can be from a purely eye problem, orbital disease, cranial disease or systemic disease.

Purely eye related causes of headache include ocular surface disease, inflammation within the eye, raised pressure within the eye, eye strain from uncorrected refractive error, eye alignment problems and excessive focussing.

Orbital and cranial causes include Orbital inflammation, tumors and blood vessel abnormalities, Abscesses and Cellulitis, Thyroid Eye Disease, Optic Nerve inflammation, Trochleitis, Sinus headache, Dental disease and Temporomandibular joint syndrome, Shingles, Cavernous Sinus disease, Carotid Artery disease, Brain diseases, Increased intracranial pressure, Migraine, Cluster headache or Tension headache.

Systemic causes include Giant Cell or Temporal Arteritis, Diabetes and High blood pressure.

The two most common forms of headache can be debilitating but are harmless. Tension headaches account for the vast majority of headaches affecting 80% of the population and can involve the muscles around the eyes. Migraines are also common, affecting 15% of the population and the preceding aura is usually visual: flickering lights, spots or lines, zig zags, water running down glass/heat haze effect, or blind spots.

Dangerous headaches tend to be “first and worst,” single and of sudden onset, progressive, and with onset later in life.

Whilst most headaches are harmless some can be vision or life threatening and so any headache that seems unusual should be checked by a health professional and if the headache seems related to the eyes than your optometrist is a good place to start.

References

  1. Fuller G, Kaye C. Headaches BMJ 2007;334 :254
  2. eTherapeutic Guidelines, eTG, accessed at https://tgldcdp.tg.org.au/
  3. Friedman, D.I., Gordon, L.K. & Quiros, P.A. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2010 14: 62.
  4. Rhee DJ, Pyfer MF. The Wills Eye Manual 3rd Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia 1999

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The link between healthy eating and healthy eyes

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on April 07, 2018 4 Comments

Most people don’t immediately associate what they eat with their eye health (unless it’s “carrots help me see in the dark”), but the food we eat contains nutrients that impact our vision, the condition of our eyes, and our overall physiological state on almost every level. Many eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration, and dry eye disease can be prevented or managed through better diet.

Lutein & zeaxanthin: It turns out we are told over and over again to eat vegetables for a reason! Foods like broccoli and kale contain carotenoids called lutein and zeaxanthin. In nature, these are found in plants to help absorb excess powerful blue light that would otherwise cause damage. Aside from being beneficial to plants, lutein and zeaxanthin are also useful to humans, as they are present in the human macula in high concentrations. Both work to essentially block harmful high-energy blue light from your macula, preventing sun damage that could lead to macular degeneration.1

Omega-3: We hear a lot about omega-3 these days. It’s an ‘essential nutrient’ – an organic product you have to consume because the body cannot make it by itself. It has been hailed as a ‘superfood’ and it has been recognised as improving almost all aspects of health, including cardiac and mental health. Research is now showing that omega-3 benefits our eyes in the same way, and is particularly significant for patients with (link: /what-we-do/dry-eye-disease text: dry eye disease), (link: /what-we-do/macular-degeneration text: macular degeneration) and glaucoma. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) revealed that people who consumed high amounts of omega-3 significant decreased their risk of macular degeneration by at least 30%.2 Omega-3 can be found in fish, soybeans, walnuts and canola oil.

Vitamin E: As our bodies metabolise organic materials for energy, certain unstable byproducts (known as “free radicals”) are formed that can be detrimental to our cells. The tissue in our eyes is no exception, but it has been found that vitamin E may work to reduce the damage caused by free radicals and thereby reduce the risk of macular degeneration. One well-known study found that an intake of 400IU a day decreased the risk of macular degeneration by 25% in high-risk groups.3 Some studies have also found that vitamin E prevents the development of (link: /what-we-do/cataract text: cataracts). Vitamin E is present vegetable oil, nuts and seeds.

Vitamin C: Several regenerative benefits are associated with vitamin C. As with omega-3, vitamin C is another ‘essential nutrient’ that we are unable to synthesise ourselves. It has been found that vitamin C has a crucial role in the assembly and preservation of connective tissue, including collagen in the cornea and the fine vascular capillaries that carry blood in the back of our eyes.4 It therefore follows that a higher intake of vitamin C helps to prevent the degeneration of those tissues, which can be the cause of diseases like macular degeneration and cataract. The most well-known source of vitamin C is oranges, but high levels of it can also be found in broccoli, capsicum, potatoes and tomatoes.

If you are considering changing your diet in any way, this should be in accordance with your doctor’s advice. Please consult your general practitioner before altering your dietary intake.

References

1 Landrum, J. and Bone, R. (2001). Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and the Macular Pigment. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 385(1), pp.28-40.
2 Lutein + Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. (2013). Journal of the American Medical Association, 309(19), p.2005.
3 Chew, E. (2009). Summary Results and Recommendations From the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(12), p.1678.
4 Chew, E., Clemons, T., Agrón, E., Sperduto, R., SanGiovanni, J., Kurinij, N. and Davis, M. (2013). Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C and E, β-Carotene, and Zinc on Age-related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology, 120(8), pp.1604-1611.e4.

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Visual Snow

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on April 03, 2018 0 Comments

Visual Snow is a symptom which is often described as if television static, or the image of a de-tuned analogue TV, is seen on top of otherwise normal vision. It is a chronic, mainly visual condition but may also involve migraine, tinnitus, tremor or balance problems. It is typically either present for as long as memorable or may also occur suddenly in the mid 20s. It has been an elusive condition to understand as it presents with no observable disease of the eyes or brain.

Visual Snow involves tiny, moving dots, usually monochromatic but they may also be coloured or flash, with additional visual phenomena also common. These include:

- Palinopsia (afterimages, trailing of moving objects)
- Enhanced entoptic phenomena (Floaters, Blue field, Self-light of the eye, Spontaneous bright flashes)
- Light sensitivity
- Poor night vision

Most people with visual snow also have additional other sensory perception phenomena including: migraine, tinnitus, tremor, balance problems, concentration problems and lethargy. The underlying cause is not known but is best explained by increased neuronal excitability resulting in visual system hypersensitivity and therefore seeing sub-threshold visual stimuli normally filtered out by the visual system.

Due to its difficulty to characterise, Visual Snow was only first reported in the medical literature in 1995 but understanding has grown steadily since. Many drugs have been investigated as treatments but none with useful levels of success. Case study evidence from the Save Sight Institute at the University of Sydney has reported on the reduction in symptoms of Visual Snow with the use of a coloured filter. Colour filters don’t eliminate the visual snow but can cause it to appear to fade more into the background (see figure above).

Assessment for the benefit of colour filters, while not offering a cure, may be able to assist in the management of visual snow as well as other suspected cortical hypersensitivity conditions such as migraine, photosensitive epilepsy and pattern glare when other management options are limited.

References

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/aug/08/visual-snow-debilitating-eye-condition-doesnt-exist

Schankin, CJ ; Maniyar, FH ; Digre, KB ; Goadsby, PJ. ‘Visual snow’ – a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura. Brain, 2014, Vol. 137(5), pp.1419-1428

Alaa Bou Ghannam, Victoria S. Pelak. Visual Snow: a Potential Cortical Hyperexcitability Syndrome. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. March 2017, 19:9

Lauschke JL, Plant GT, Fraser CL. Visual snow: A thalamocortical dysrhythmia of the visual pathway? Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. Volume 28, June 2016, p123-127

McKendrick AM, Chan YM, Tien M, Millist L, Clough M, Mack H, Fielding J, White OB. Behavioral measures of cortical hyperexcitability assessed in people who experience visual snow. Neurology. Issue: Volume 88(13), 28 March 2017, p 1243–1249

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Blepharitis and Dry Eye: The Chicken or the Egg?

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on December 05, 2017 0 Comments

For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease (DED) have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency.

Consider the “chicken-and-egg”, a metaphoric adjective describing situations where it is not clear which of two events should be considered the cause and which should be considered the effect. As eye care practitioners we tend to focus on the immediate presenting problem and not what preceded it. The two conditions, DED and blepharitis have multiple overlapping symptoms and pathologies intertwined. With a re-evaluation of the existing evidence and intuitive reasoning, is non-Sjogren’s DED simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis?

DED is often the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. In 1946, Phillip Thygeson, MD, described blepharitis as, “a chronic inflammation of the lid border”. In spite of the very nature of the word blepharitis (blepha = lid, ritis = inflammation), inflammatory lid disease lacking lash and lid debris would often lead practitioners away from the diagnosis of blepharitis, as if having “scurf” was a prerequisite for having the disease. While terms such as anterior or posterior blepharitis, staphylococcal blepharitis or seborrheic blepharitis as distinctions are rarely isolated, often overlapping and do not serve to accurately describe the stage or duration of disease (1). Normal lid margin flora bacteria, primarily Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal epidermidis, overcolonise the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm, the most basic of bacterial survival strategies (2) . The eyelid is the perfect environment as biofilms form wherever there is the combination of moisture, nutrients and a surface (3). Biofilms create a nutritious food supply for the ubiquitous Demodex mite in the form of a polysaccharide and endogenous bacteria (4). The biofilm and Demodex mites never go away; the biofilm thickening, and Demodex population increasing with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, chemokine release and thus, increasing inflammation.

Belonging to the arachnoid species, Demodex mites live in the base of the eyelash follicles and meibomian glands. Lacking an anus, Demodex mites store their faeces internally in a crystallised form until they decompose, releasing their internal contents onto the host eyelid margin (4). The combination of the biofilm bacterial virulence factors, and large numbers of dying Demodex mites creates a domino effect, first follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, lid wiper epitheliopathy, aqueous insufficiency through inflammatory damage to the accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring and Krause, destruction of the eyelid anatomy, and ultimately ocular surface disease.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek made the first known microscopic observation of a biofilm in 1684; oral bacteria within the scurf of a man’s teeth (5). Over 100 years ago, no one brushed their teeth or practiced any form of regular oral hygiene, chronic gingivitis preceded eventual tooth loss and dentures were the norm. Dentistry has effectively educated the world on regular and routine oral hygiene and we visit their practices for regular cleaning with the dental hygienist to remove biofilms from our teeth and gums. With nearly 337 million people suffering from dry eye syndrome worldwide (6), to quote Benjamin Franklin, “an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure”. The pound of cure is expected to generate US$4.5 billion by 2020. Can and should the eye care industry prevent dry eye through effectively treating blepharitis and eventual meibomian gland loss before our patients are symptomatic? Is dry eye and blepharitis one entity, that is dry eye blepharitis syndrome or DEBS, reflecting, in fact, a single disease process rather than two distinct processes? As primary eye care practitioners, optometrists have the opportunity to play a key role in the prevention, not just the treatment of dry eye disease, by supporting the increasingly strong argument that blepharitis and dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal with microblepharoexfoliation and regular and routine eyelid hygiene.

References

1. Bernardes, T.F. and A.A. Bonfioli, Blepharitis. Seminars in Ophthalmology, 2010. 25(3): p. 79-83.

2. Brothers, K.M., et al., Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro. Cornea, 2014. 33(10): p. 1083-7.

3. Rynerson, J.M. and H.D. Perry, DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis. Clin Ophthalmol, 2016. 10: p. 2455-2467.

4. Moran, E.M., R. Foley, and F.C. Powell, Demodex and rosacea revisited. Clin Dermatol, 2017. 35(2): p. 195-200.

5. Christersson, L.A., J.J. Zambon, and R.J. Genco, Dental bacterial plaques. Nature and role in periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol, 1991. 18(6): p. 441-6

6. Cannady, K. Dry Eye Products Market Expected to Generate $4.5 Billion by 2020. 2016 [cited 2017 18 July]; Available from: https://market-scope.com/pressrelease/ dry-eye-products-market-expected-to-generate-4-5-billion-by-2020/.

*Lachlan Scott-Hoy is a well-known presenter and owner of Innovative Eye Care in Australia. He has a special interest in orthokeratology and contact lenses and is director of Innovative Contacts, a company which specialises in the design, supply, and advice for fitting RGP contact lenses

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Dry Eye Disease and the DEWS II

Posted by Innovative Eye Care Adelaide on November 03, 2017 0 Comments

Dry eye disease is a common condition that coincides with a variety of signs, symptoms and environmental conditions that all mean it has high potential for being overlooked. It’s prevalence is high with studies ranging from 5-35% but despite this, and despite its potential for significant quality of life impacts, we currently don’t have a clear path to effective management.

To chart this path is the charge of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society. With the second iteration of Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) Report published in July 2017, a worldwide collaborative effort has been made to define and assist in management. The amount of research in this area has exploded with the number of papers cited jumping since the first report.

DEWS II has covered a lot of ground in the basic science of the causes and factors that result in developing dry eye disease. A key new point is that dry eye disease often causes nerve damage which contributes to symptoms, even more so than inflammation does. Management is still stepwise but must be more personalised to the contributing factors in each case. Many treatment recommendations have not changed significantly from the earlier report. This may be due to the often inconsistent link between the symptoms felt and the signs observed of dry eye disease. Evidence of significant improvements with treatments in signs without symptoms, or vice versa, makes research in this area difficult.

One of the priorities of the new report is an update of the definition of the disease. Dry eye is defined in the report as a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface, characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film and accompanied by ocular symptoms, in which tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, ocular surface inflammation and damage, and neurosensory abnormalities play etiologic roles.

The updated understanding of the disease has condensed the previous 3 layer model of the tear film to a 2 layer model: a surface oil layer and a water-mucous layer. Dry eye disease can be a result of a problem with either layer 1) Aqueous deficient or 2) Evaporative and making the distinction is an important step in appropriate management. Once this distinction has been made, tear film osmolarity is the single most reliable objective metric of dry eye disease with highest correlation to severity. This technology is available at Innovative Eye Care. We can also measure the key metrics of the 2 forms of the disease: non-invasive tear meniscus height for aqueous deficient and non-invasive tear breakup time for evaporative dry eye disease.

Where treatment has greatly changed is in the increasing role of the health of the eyelids on dry eye disease and also the use of scleral contact lenses.

Dry eye management must address treating any blepharitis and meibomian gland disease if they are present. Additionally, controlling Demodex mites is now an established factor to look at in treating dry eyes. We at Innovative Eye Care have a comprehensive range of DEWS II validated treatments for eyelid disease from Blephex, Blephadex, Oust Demodex, Intense Pulse Light, heat masks, Sterilid, Optimel Medical Manuka Honey and Ocusoft.

Advances in scleral contact lens fitting techniques have allowed for the greater use of comfortable, large diameter rigid lenses capable of holding a layer of tears between the lens and the eye all day long. This is a fundamental new technology for managing dry eye disease. Also, the more temporary use of soft disposable lenses can be used in a bandage role to rehabilitate the eye’s surface.

Several new drugs are available that target inflammatory and mucous secretion approaches but these are not available in Australia. This may change in the future but that timeline is unknown.

Lubricant drops help but can’t mimic the complex system of water, oils and mucous together with electrolytes and proteins that our tears are. They can be a bother to instill all day long when our eye glands would normally be producing these parts continuously.

If you are having trouble with dry eyes or eye discomfort that has not been diagnosed and in particular if you also score greater than 23 on the following questionnaire, then we at Innovative Eye Care may be able to help.

References

Schiffman, R.M., Christianson, M.D., Jacobsen, G., Hirsch, J.D., and Reis, B.L. Reliability and validity of the ocular surface disease index. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000; 118: 615–621

Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(9):1264–1268.

Tomlinson, A., Khanal, S., Ramaesh, K., Diaper, C., and McFadyen, A. Tear film osmolarity: determination of a referent for dry eye diagnosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006; 47: 4309–4315

DEWS II available at http://www.theocularsurfacejournal.com/article/S1542-0124(17)30120-9/fulltext

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DRY OR WATER EYES? THE SOLUTION MAY BE A PLUMBING JOB

Posted by Georgia Turner on August 21, 2017 0 Comments

Innovative Eye Care's new blog is now live! Click here to read our first post by Optometrist Karl Evans about dry eyes. Karl uses a simple analogy to explain some of the more complicated concepts relating to dry eye.

 

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How to get the most out of your eye drops

Posted by Georgia Turner on August 14, 2015 3 Comments

Many patients with eye diseases including glaucoma, corneal infections, iritis/uveitis and dry eye rely on efficient and correct use of eye drops to manage their condition. Eye drops can sometimes be difficult to use properly; this can lead to a lack of action and wastage of the drops. Here are some quick tips for using your eye drops correctly...

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Happy Holidays!

Posted by Georgia Turner on December 17, 2014 1 Comment

Happy Holidays everyone! Our store will be CLOSED over the Christmas break. All orders placed after 12pm 24th December will be despatched on the 5th January. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause and recommend you send orders through as early as possible during this period. 

Have a Merry Christmas!

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